Essential to the U.S. Economy

Large, diversified U.S. financial institutions make unique and vital contributions to the American economy.

In the real-life stress test of the pandemic, the largest banks have been resilient and increased lending to people and small businesses to move the country forward. This strength has allowed us to support businesses, households, and communities with $9.3 trillion in credit (an increase of $1.33 trillion since the beginning of the pandemic) and fund states and localities to build and upgrade vital infrastructure, like hospitals, schools, roads, and bridges.

The Value and Strength of America’s Largest Financial Institutions

We support economic growth by lending to consumers, businesses, and other financial institutions, and foster deep and liquid capital markets that allow the U.S. government and private institutions to finance public spending and investment. Our financial institutions provide a wide range of products and services that supports the ability of consumers, governments, and businesses of all sizes to grow and create jobs in the United States.     

Detailed Information 


We promote savings and investment through lending. Forum members hold $4.69 trillion in loans, accounting for 38 percent of total lending by banks to businesses and households. Forum members provide nearly half of all consumer loans by banks in the United States. Consumer lending supports loans for a variety of household needs, such as the purchase of a new car or furnishing a new home.

in loans - 38% of U.S. lending to businesses and households.

U.S. Consumer Lending

Forum members provide $842 billion in consumer loans.

Forum Member Amount of Outstanding Business Loans Less Than $100,000

Holding $93 billion in small business loans, our members are a major source of lending to small businesses, helping the economy grow at both a community and national level.

Liquid Capital Markets

Our underwriting activities foster deep and liquid capital markets and support corporate investment in America. We underwrite nearly three-quarters of debt and equity transactions–such as initial public offerings–among large institutions in the United States, providing a critical service that that other U.S. institutions cannot offer.

invested in municipal securities that fund projects like hospitals, roads, bridges and schools.

Underwriting Four-Quarter Average for Periods Ending Q4 2022 and Q4 2023

Our members underwrite nearly three-quarters of debt and equity transactions.

Forum Member Municipal Security Holdings

Forum member municipal security holdings have increased in the past decade.

Capital & Liquidity

Our institutions help foster deep and liquid capital markets, ensuring the U.S. government and private institutions are able to effectively finance public spending and investments in the real economy.

of Common Equity Tier 1 capital.

Forum Member Common Equity Tier 1 Capital

Forum members have significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of their capital.

Forum Member Stress Test Losses to Tier 1 Capital

Forum members maintain substantial capital to sustain losses as severe as those contemplated in the stress tests.

Regulation & Supervision

In addition to significant annual increases in capital and liquidity levels, several post-crisis regulatory and supervisory reforms have greatly increased the safety and resilience of the U.S. financial system. These include enhanced supervision at member institutions, improved resolvability, and new requirements to issue long-term debt, among others..

Forum Member Unique Subsidiaries

Total subsidiaries at U.S. GSIBs have declined by 31% since 2009, which suggests a significant decrease in organizational complexity.

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