Essential to the U.S. Economy

Large, diversified U.S. financial institutions make unique and vital contributions to the American economy.


We support economic growth by lending to consumers, businesses, and other financial institutions, and foster deep and liquid capital markets that allow the U.S. government and private institutions to finance public spending and investment. Our financial institutions provide a wide range of products and services that supports the ability of consumers, governments, and businesses of all sizes to grow and create jobs in the United States.

Detailed Information
The Value and Strength of America’s Largest Financial Institutions


We promote savings and investment through lending. Forum members hold $4.27 trillion in loans, accounting for 41 percent of total lending by banks to businesses and households. Forum members provide nearly half of all consumer loans by banks in the United States. Consumer lending supports loans for a variety of household needs, such as the purchase of a new car or furnishing a new home.

in loans - 41% of U.S. lending to businesses and households.

U.S. Consumer Lending

Forum members provide $871 billion in consumer loans.

Holding $111 billion in small business loans, our members are a major source of lending to small businesses, helping the economy grow at both a community and national level.

Liquid Capital Markets

Our underwriting activities foster deep and liquid capital markets and support corporate investment in America. We underwrite nearly three-quarters of debt and equity transactions–such as initial public offerings–among large institutions in the United States, providing a critical service that that other U.S. institutions cannot offer.

invested in municipal projects like hospitals, roads, bridges and schools.

Four-Quarter Average for Periods Ending Q3 2020 and Q2 2021

Foreign banks make up a majority of debt and equity transaction underwriting not provided by Forum members.

Forum member municipal security holdings have increased 19% in the past decade.

Capital & Liquidity

Our institutions help foster deep and liquid capital markets, ensuring the U.S. government and private institutions are able to effectively finance public spending and investments in the real economy.

of Tier 1 capital.

Forum members have significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of their capital.

Forum members maintain substantial capital to sustain losses as severe as those contemplated in the stress tests.

Regulation & Supervision

In addition to significant annual increases in capital and liquidity levels, several post-crisis regulatory and supervisory reforms have greatly increased the safety and resilience of the U.S. financial system. These include enhanced supervision at member institutions, improved resolvability, and new requirements to issue long-term debt, among others.

Total subsidiaries at U.S. GSIBs have declined by 37% since 2009, which suggests a significant decrease in organizational complexity.

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